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Jeu de crosse, Choule

Evenals Colf en Malie claimt Jeu de crosse, ook wel aangeduid als Choule of Chole, aan de basis te liggen van het hedendaagse Golf. Evenals Colf is Jeu de crosse een stok-met-bal-spel voor de lange baan, maar in tegenstelling tot Colf spelen hierbij twee partijen tegen elkaar (en kunnen elkaar ook hinderen).

Afbeelding van Guy Dollian bij het verhaal 'Le Grand-Choleur' in het boek 'Contes du roi Cambrinus' uit 1873 van Charles Deulin (1827-1877)

Editions Jean Crès, Parijs, 1935

Bron: Geert & Sara Nijs (ancientgolf@wanadoo.fr)

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Jeu de crosse, Choule

Belgian Chole Club, 19th Century, together with a group of four Belgian painted chole balls, with original net or carrying bag

£ 1.000 - £ 1.500 ($ 1.567 - $ 2.351)

Price Realized
£ 875 ($ 1.365)

Origins of Golf: The Jaime Ortiz-Patino Collection. Catalogue Christie's, London, 30 May 2012 (sale 6021)

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Jeu de Crosse, Choule

Belgian Chole Club, 19th century.

Christie's France, Sale 6021 30 May 2012. Origins of Golf: The Jaime Ortiz-Patino Collection

Price realized $ 1,365, together with a group of seven Belgian painted chole balls, with original net or carrying bag and four other balls (12)

Source: Geert & Sara Nijs

• Games for Kings & Commoners, Part Two, p. 246. 2014. ISBN 298-2-9540069-2-5 (choullaetclava@orange.fr)

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Golf, 1706

Landschap uit 1706 van H. Golt (ws. H. Goltzius).

The painting is a view of Haus Wohnung, the residence of local nobleman, Johann Carselis of Ulft (who was also called by the last name of Doornick) in the vicinity of the town of Voerde on the Lower Rhine. The original building dates back to a moated castle of the late Middle Ages but in its present state it reflects the architecture of the late seventeenth century when the owner had the whole building refurbished.
The figure views the two-towered building from the southwest and from a position on the eastern bank of the Rhine. In the lower right-hand corner, the date 1706 is inscribed on a stone; it is conceivable that Johann Carselis commissioned the painting to commemorate the completion of the extensive renovation of his residence. Equally, Carselis may have wished to express his gratitude towards his mother-in-law, the widowed Sophia Heilwig von Lynden, who had enfeoffed hin with the stately mansion. It is presumably she who is seated in a costly, festive red dress in the left-hand corner. Standing on her left, with identical coiffure to indicate a close relationship, her daughter Johanna Maria, the lord of the manor's wife, can easily be identified, as can his two unmarried sisters, Woltera Stephania and Elisabeth Katharine, who both lived ar the residence. Woltera Stephania had died in February 1705, one year before Golt finished his painting, but her inclusion in the picture may have been a deliberate attempt to pay a lasting tribute to her.

The golfing scene is truly remarkable. The lord of the manor had devised a golf course to the south of his residence; a large rectangular hedged enclosure with a closely trimmed lawn. Under a tree in the remote corner of this enclosure, young Reiner Johann Theodor has teed his ball on a truly sophisticated contraption: a peg stuck into the turf at an angle which roughly anticipated the trajectory of the ball. The device apparently featured a concave top in which players deposited their ball before teeing off. It is conceivable that this device made it easier for a player to address the ball and to hit properly. Young Reiner is pictured taking a mighty swing at the ball. As befitted a woung man of his status, he is wearing the clothes of an adult which, in turn, closely resemble the attire worn by the golfers on the earliest Scottish golfing pictures, the first of shich is dated variously 1680 or 1720, and the second 1746/47. The first Scottish picture is an oil painting by an unknown artist which depicts a gentlemen foursome and two caddies watching one of their fellows in his attempt to swing at the ball against the backdrop of the town of St, Andrews. The second picture, a water-color by the Englishman Paul Sandby, shows a squad of soldiers fighting it out between them with a golf-ball in the shrubbery at the foot of Edingburgh Castle. Young Reiners's club is similar to those wielded by these Scottish golfers, or seventeenth clubs that have survived.


Bron: Steag AG, Heiner Gillmeister, Robin Bargmann

 Golf on the Rhine: On the Origins of Golf, with Sidelights on Polo by Heiner Gillmeister. 2002.

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Waarschijnlijk zal nooit met zekerheid worden aangetoond dat golf is afgeleid van het colfspel uit de Lage Landen, want ook Choule en Malie kunnen, op basis van eigen argumenten, worden gerekend tot een voorvader. Niettemin zijn de overeenkomsten tussen colf en golf opvallend.

William Inglis op de Leith Links, olieverf op doek van David Allan (1744-1796).

Op de achtergrond zien we de jaarlijkse optocht naar het clubhouse ter gelegenheid van de intronisatie van een nieuwe captain.

The Scottish National Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh

Bron: Stichting Early Golf

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Mail takes to the ice, ca. 1725

Mail takes to the ice (detail). Lille, France, ca. 1725.

Three players, each with his own mail and boule, contest a match of mail on the ice. This variant, descended from pallemaille, was one of the many games including the hockey-like game of crosse, Flemish colf, Dutch kolf and bowls, that moved to frozen surfaces in the winter months.

Oberfinanzdirektion (inv. no. KRGT 9265), Stuttgart, Germany

 Golf through the ages by Michael Flannery, page 110. January 2004

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Maliestokken, 1732


An old man and a girl at a vegetable and fish shop from 1732 by Willem van Mieris (1662 - 1747). Mind the 'maliestokken' (mail clubs) in the left corner below.

The Royal Collection of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (RCIN 405946), acquired by George IV when Prince of Wales

Source: Saar Nijs

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